Friday, May 22, 2020
Challenges Faced by Immigrants The changing environments throughout the ages have caused the movement of thousands of families out of their homelands. Whether forced to make such decisions or doing so by their own desires, all immigrants have had to survive the physical and psychological challenges encountered along the way. To speak about the experiences of all these different people using the same ideas and examples would be quite inaccurate. They all, however, had to live through similar situations and deal with similar problems. Many of them succeeded and found the better future they were looking for. Many others found only hardship and experienced the destruction of their hopes and dreams. All of them were transformed.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many immigrants feel the same way about the things they leave. I know I did when I left my home country of Bulgaria. My parents were hoping to provide my brother and me with a brighter future by moving to the US, the country where anything is possible , or so everyone said. It was 1998 and I was thirteen. I still remember the day we left and how hard it was for my whole family. Through tears, I said goodbye to all my relatives and friends whom I cherished and loved. I felt as if the whole world was closing up in me. I was being taken away from everything I knew and everything I loved. The cool breeze of that autumn day rushed through me as if foreshadowing a hard and cold future. The moment came for us to get on the plane. I wanted to stop time and run away, back to everything I knew. But that was impossible; the choice of turning back did not exist. As I was going up the stairs of the plane, I looked around at the airport and its surroundings. I looked and saw the warmth and light of the familiar places. I took a deep breath of the air around me, knowing it was the last time I could sense it, and went in. It really was hard forShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Esperanza Rising1233 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRose without thorns.Ã¢â¬ All immigrants have troubles through their life. Maybe they are judged by their Heritage,and that is why they are mistreated. Those are the thorns IÃ¢â¬â¢m Talking about Esperanza Ortega from Esperanza Rising by pam Munoz Ryan is no different. This young girl had to face a huge challenge to where she had to leave her home in Mexico. She ran to California to start a new life. Since her papaÃ¢â¬â¢s death,Esperanza had face many other challenges as an immigrant. Mama getting sick with valleyRead MoreImmigrants And Refugee1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdecision to move out, or they move by their own desire. Migration and parenthood in a new country are significant transitions that pose stressful challenges for immigrant and refugee parents. Although living in Canada can be rewarding, however, there are challenges that immigrants and refugee face through trying to adapt to the culture of Canada. These challenges may include, battling cultural shock, Language Barriers, Mis conceptions of Homeland and culture, employment, and depression. Read MoreEssay on Working Experiences in Gilded Age America842 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbut are not limited to age, level of skill, gender, economic class, language(s) spoken, and ethnic origin. It can be said that different groups of people faced drastically different challenges in the world of work; however, some of these challenges are more common within more groups of people than just one. Without a doubt, all Americans faced economic and social issues during this time because of corporate corruption and the lack of laws and programs that protected families from being overworkedRead MoreEssay on An Analysis of the Jungle by Upton Sinclair1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the early 1900s life for Americas new Chicago immigrant workers in the meat packing industry was explored by Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle. Originally published in 1904 as a serial piece in the socialist newspaper Appeal to Reason, Sinclairs novel was initially found too graphic and shocking by publis hing firms and therefore was not published in its complete form until 1906. In this paper, I will focus on the challenges faced by a newly immigrated worker and on what I feel SinclairsRead MoreEssay An Analysis Of The Jungle By Upton Sinclair1416 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the early 1900s life for Americas new Chicago immigrant workers in the meat packing industry was explored by Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle. Originally published in 1904 as a serial piece in the socialist newspaper Appeal to Reason, Sinclairs novel was initially found too graphic and shocking by publishing firms and therefore was not published in its complete form until 1906. In this paper, I will focus on the challenges faced by a newly immigrated worker and on what I feel SinclairsRead MoreAnalysis Of The BookThe Jungle, By Upton Sinclair1636 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthemes on the plight of the immigrants and the workers in the United States. In doing so, he addresses the issues that occurred during the industr ial age. He presented his themes through a narration on a family that moved to Chicago with hopes of improving their livelihood. However, things never went as expected as their hopes of a better living were shunned away by the occurrence of several unfortunate events. Sinclair pinpoints several plights faced by the immigrants and the workers through hisRead MoreThe Immigration Act Of 17901304 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesoften known to be the largest turning point in the history of US immigration. The law limited naturalization to immigrants who were free white persons of good moral character. That being said, The Naturalization act of The United States who granted citizenship to immigrants that faced many barriers are restrictions to the American Law and the many cultural difference caused many challenges throughout the journey process after the Naturalization Act was a success for many groups. To begin I willRead MoreThe American Dream Is Existent1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesregarding individuals I have met who are faced with similar situations. Her story suggests that hard work does not guarantee that one will achieve the American Dream. A majority of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s population are immigrants or come from immigrant descent. Millions of people have fled to Canada in hopes of a better life. As a result, Canada has prospered into the beautiful country that it is today. However, it is difficult to believe that immigrants still experience great hardship when theyRead MoreFarmer, Political Boss, and Immigrant968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFarmer, Political Boss, and Immigrant Various people from the late nineteenth century held diverse opinions on political issues of the day. The source of this diversity was often due to varying backgrounds these people experienced. Three distinct groups of people are the farming class, the political bosses, and the immigrants, who poured into the country like an unstoppable flood. These groups of people also represented the social stratification of the new society, which had just emerged fromRead MoreHunger Of Memory Theme1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesan American boy (Rodriguez, 27). During his education, Rodriguez is considered as a minority the fact he is an immigrant to the United Kingdom. In other words, what Richards concludes is that complexion, race, assimilation, as well as Americanism, are the major challenges he faces during his education. Given the above affections to the American society, it becomes a trial for immigrants to adapt to the American environment that they dream of. Life was generally complicated for Richard the fact that
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Fraud, Deceptions, and Downright Lies About Essay Topics on Domestic Violence Exposed An important number of deaths are happening on daily basis, because of domestic violence only. Children on the opposite hand may develop serious developmental troubles and could find it challenging to socialize with different individuals. Domestic violence is a continuous problem in various elements of earth. Absolutely free Domestic Violence essay samples can be found FreeEssayHelp with no payment or registration. There are several reasons why people divorce. If you're undocumented (don't have legal papers to be in america) or aren't sure about your immigration status, you need to talk to an immigration attorney. Domestic violence is a big social issue in the USA today, in addition to all over the world. Lots of people have become abusive to their relatives and partners. Spouse abuse occurs throughout all facets of society. In the long run, the world shall be full of hope, and with wom en who have resolved to emancipate themselves. Even if the majority of the times domestic violence is connected to women, it can happen to anybody. The Fight Against Essay Topics on Domestic Violence There are an infinite number of websites that have sample papers on a wide selection of topic. You may use the information for a foundation for your upcoming paper. Make sure that you have enough info to write about. Make sure you can come across enough information for the most fascinating topics. The Essay Topics on Domestic Violence Chronicles If you attempt to look at what causes domestic violence, you can't pinpoint it to one specific issue. It's inadequate to look at domestic violence as a part of the typical interpersonal conflict which happens in most families. Domestic violence does not have any place in today's society and ought to be strongly managed. It is the main example of such behaviours. 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Abuse as a kid, was a casualty of abuse for a kid, abused former partners and unemployed or underemployed. Victims need strategies to help them see past fear when attempting to escape from bad situations involving abuse. Abuse victims sometimes require medical care. To accomplish this, the writers would have to place down the facts of their research in the argumentative essay, at the identical time they might have to cite the facts to show the credential of the arguments. Without a suitable structure an essay does not have any meaning. Though some essays may not require references, it's strongly advised to create a suitable reference list in line with the essentials of the chosen formatting style, as a way to prevent possible plagiarism problems and maximize your odds to find a great grade for your academic essay. Anxiety, aggressiveness, and changes in how a kid socializes with others are a number of the emotional and behavioral issues that could result because of domestic viole nce. Some scholars have recognized that it's a syndrome although others would deny a syndrome exists. The third phase of the cycle of violence is whenever the violent outbursts stop. The Good, the Bad and Essay Topics on Domestic Violence The variety of known instances of domestic violence isn't complete. Also as a result of history of domestic violence, it's still regarded as acceptable in some ways and not a huge threat to society. For the past few decades, there are million cases of violence on the planet. There'll stay an accession to the statistics, and one cannot predict when the government could finally put a stop to domestic violence. The very first portion of making this kind of argument is normally establishing that we have a tendency to care about and sympathize with different humans. The essay isn't the simplest task to master. When making any sort of argument, it is necessary to consider objections. You can't earn any assumption that you desire. Essay Topic s on Domestic Violence Can Be Fun for Everyone When selecting a definition, bear in mind that there are plenty of kinds of ethical arguments and that the manner in which you argue for your specific claim depends in large part on how you define your terms. Basically however, the concept is to refrain from making assumptions that very few or no acceptable folks would make. After stating your thesis, you will want to explore the matter in depth in order for your reader will comprehend the issue fully. The format and structure of the essay will also vary based on the sort of paper you're likely to write.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 Ã¢â¬â Brief Immigration Histories of France and Britain As a nation France has historically attracted migrants from both within and outside of Europe over the centuries. During the nineteenth century migrants flowed into France from neighbouring countries like Italy, Spain, Portugal, Belgium and Poland, encouraged by the regular opportunities for employment. A significant increase in immigration is evident as France began to rapidly industrialize in the 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s and the sudden demand for labour that was created by economic expansion and industrial growth could not be met internally. We will write a custom essay sample on Histories of france and britain or any similar topic only for you Order Now This process continued and increased in scale during the latter 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s as France established itself as a major European industrial nation. In 1851 foreigners accounted for around 1% of the total population; by the mid-1880s, this had trebled to nearly 3% (A G Hargreaves, 1995). During the First World War France needed to actively recruit foreign workers in order to keep its infrastructure and war effort going and to maintain necessary supplies from, for example, its munitions factories. When the war ended foreign labour was still needed to lessen the huge impact caused to the domestic labour market by the loss of so many men in the fighting. Immigration was at a high point immediately following the war, but with the advent of the Great Depression in 1929, the whole of Europe, began to experience a serious and long-term period of economic depression. As France was also severely affected, the number of immigrant workers rapidly decreased as they began to sear ch elsewhere for work. Some left willingly as the labour market contracted, whilst others were forcibly removed. By the late 1950s and 1960s, as the economy recovered, the French Government once again recognised the need for immigrants to assist with FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s economic reconstruction. France relied upon migrant workers to meet labour shortages fill low-paid employment into positions that it was otherwise difficult to fill. Initially French politicians and planners intended to meet FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s need for labour by encouraging European immigrants to settle rather than look elsewhere, however, growing levels of prosperity in Europe meant that less and less Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese etc. were attracted to France. The government were therefore forced to look towards migrants from the French colonies and former colonies in North Africa and South-East Asia to fill the labour gap. As in Britain, colonialism created the simplest and most effective channel for labour migration into France. As a major colonial power, France could quickly and efficiently enlist a potential workforce from its colonies and protectorates, particularly the Maghreb (North-West Africa: Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia). By the middle of the 1950s those from the Maghreb region were the most significant group of immigrants moving into France. A huge proportion of those choosing to migrate to France were from Algeria, one of the most important members of the French colonial empire. However, immigration from the Maghreb was different in that unlike pre-war immigrant populations who were almost entirely men, those from the Maghreb began to bring their families over to settle in France too. From the 1970s onwards France witnessed the increase in women from other countries moving to France to be reunited with their husbands and fathers and reuniting as families. These employees were unfortunately also frequently the first to be laid off in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s as the economy again slowed down. Perhaps in part due to its position as an island, BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s significant immigration history is similar though much shorter. Throughout the 19th century census records identify a small but regular trickle of immigrants from all over Europe. Immigrants from further afield were generally part of the slave trade and would not be identified in any census. Slavery was effectively outlawed in 1807, but it was not until 1833 that the Slavery Abolition Act was passed by Parliament, which banned slavery throughout the British Empire and its abolition meant a virtual halt to the movement of black people into Britain. This coincided with a small increase in migrants from Europe, however, immigration by Europeans did not take place in significant numbers. However, we began to see significant levels of immigration during and after both the First and Second World Wars. During both of these conflicts, many thousands of men from across the Empire made the journey to Britain in order to enlist and fight for what they considered to be Ã¢â¬Ëtheir countryÃ¢â¬â¢. India alone provided 1.3 million soldiers to fight in the First World War, 138,000 serving on the Western Front. During the Second World War, almost 60,000 British merchant seamen came from the sub-continent (http://news.bbc.co.uk, 2002). Some of these men stayed in Britain following the end of the war and small immigrant communities established themselves around the port areas. At that time there was no specific legislation regarding immigration but the British establishment did not seem overly enthusiastic. As the Second World War ended, just like in France, the labour market had been decimated by the loss of so many soldiers, and the government began looking again towards immigrants to fill those gaps. A significant number of Polish immigrants were the first to settle in the UK, partly due to the links made during the war. Italians also settled into small communities but not in sufficient numbers to meet the employment need. West Indian men, demonstrating a deep patriotism towards Britain and its Empire, had been keen to migrate in order to fight in the war and as the war ended, their lack of prospects at home and feelings of unity led them to seek to work and stay in the UK. The government needed these men to join BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s depleted workforce, although officially immigration from the rapidly shrinking Empire was being discouraged. As mass immigration continued in the 1950s, incidents of prejudice and of racial tension exploded into widespread racism and racial violence in the U K. Until then, legislation had allowed people from the Empire and Commonwealth, who at that time all held British Passports, unrestricted access to Britain. Facing public outcry and political pressure, the government continued to pass successive laws making it more and more difficult for non-white immigrants to enter the country. By 1972, legislation meant that a British passport holder born overseas could only settle in Britain if they, firstly, had a work permit and, secondly, could prove that a parent or grandparent had been born in the UK. (news.bbc.co.uk, 2002) In effect, this meant that children of white families from the British Empire and Commonwealth could migrate to Britain whereas those of black parentage were denied entry. So it can be seen that historically, immigration into both Britain and France shares the same roots in terms of being vital to the workforce and development of both countries at times of need. Where they differ is that France has a much longer history of welcoming migrant workers over a period of at least a hundred years whereas BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s interest is much more recent. Immigration into Britain was relatively unpopular as people who were different seemed to be instantly treated with fear and mistrust whereas until the late sixties immigration into France was largely depoliticized and seen as an essential but economic bonus. Up until the early seventies it was anticipated that in time the migrant workers from North and Sub-Saharan Africa would eventually return to their countries of origin, but as it became apparent that a large number intended to settle permanently, public opinion began to change. The French government responded to increasing public concern by, strengthening it s immigration policy and by 1977 had introduced legislation to prohibit all inward immigration. Rapidly, immigration into France had shifted from a generally positive matter of economics into a serious social problem, and the attitudes of the French towards immigrants began to parallel those of the British. Chapter 2 Ã¢â¬â The Nature of The State in France and Britain One of the most fundamental differences between France and Britain is the nature of the state. In the 1880 the term Ã¢â¬ËlaiciteÃ¢â¬â¢ was first used in France following Ã¢â¬ËLe crise du seize MaiÃ¢â¬â¢ in1877, which was effectively the birth of Republicanism in France, in order to ensure that policies developed were not inspired by religious concerns. In 1905 France fully separated the functions of the Church and the State by passing a law that prohibited the state from formally recognizing or funding any religion or religious organisation that existed to further its religious beliefs. Ã¢â¬ËLaiciteÃ¢â¬â¢ is a concept that is enshrined in the French constitution (Article 1) and remains central to the modern French Republic and a powerful political driving force. The word laicite is difficult to translate directly into English as it encompasses a whole concept, but it is derived from the word Ã¢â¬ËlaymanÃ¢â¬â¢ i.e. not part of the clergy. Its closest translation in t erms of ideology is that of Ã¢â¬ËsecularismÃ¢â¬â¢, but this does not really convey its full meaning. Essentially, laicite insists upon the strict separation of state from church, i.e. to have no state religion so that the state officially sees religion as a private matter. In this way France differs considerably from Britain: whereby in Britain the Queen is not only the Head of State but is also the head of the Church of England, giving the church a formal role in the administration of the state, whilst the Catholic Church has no such status in the French Republic, despite the fact that a high proportion of French people are Catholics. This clear difference in state ideology obviously leads to significant differences in approaches to issues of legislation and cultural approaches to social policy. As a Ã¢â¬ËsecularÃ¢â¬â¢ state, FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to immigration and issues of diversity was to follow a clear assimilation model. It is important to the French that one is a citizen first and a full participant in the wider French community and that any form of religious or sub group identity is not sanctioned or otherwise encouraged by the state. In France, as a French citizen you are expected to Ã¢â¬Ëleave cultural and ethnic differences at the border and are theoretically seamlessly assimilated into the republic. The ideology is that everyone is equal before a state that is blind to colour, race and religionÃ¢â¬â¢ (www.guardian.co.uk, 2010). Ethnic minorities do not officially exist in France as it is constitutionally illegal to classify or count people by ethnicity, but the huge difference between this ideological view and the reality of discrimination was becoming a problem in France. Whilst immigration remained a frequently solitary and male dominated process of migrating as an individual, separated from links with home and family, in order to work, assimilation did not appear to have been problematic and therefore did not really present a challenge to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s equilibrium. However, with the changes to patterns of migration which involved more families and, over time, the building of new communities of immigrants, particularly focussed in the poor Ã¢â¬ËbanlieuxÃ¢â¬â¢, whole generations of young people of immigrant descent have been effectively Ã¢â¬ËghettoisedÃ¢â¬â¢ and it appears that it is this that has encouraged third and fourth generation young people from immigrant families to seek their own identity and align themselves with religious or geographic communities as a response to the discrimination which does not exist in theory but which is blatantly apparent in reality. In contrast to this Britain adopted a multiculturalism approach to diversity. Such an ideology attempts to create unity through difference, theorising that although a nations sub cultures may be diverse, they should all be celebrated and embraced as they share common values. The two approaches are quite different and France (assimilation) and Britain (multiculturalism) are often used for comparative analysis as both adopt quite clearly identified models of these two approaches. The world continually refers back to these two countries in order to weigh the pros and cons of each social model. With both countries ferociously defending their particular model, and with other countries disagreeing over the relative merits of each, the debate continues. Interestingly however, despite the application of two very different models and responses to immigration and diversity, both France and Britain appear to be facing similar dilemmas, problems and attitudes within their own countries towards i mmigration as a social issue. *Other relevant cultural issues and differences like religion, family, education etc and how they relate to attitudes and public opinion. *Nationalism Ã¢â¬â FranceÃ¢â¬â¢s assimilation model plays to Nationalist attitudes. Britain as an Island- small within Europe but wanting to be influential. Self protection ideologies also play into the hands of Nationalism. Chapter 3 Ã¢â¬â Legal and Political Frameworks of France and Britain Since the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s both France and Britain have focussed increasingly on immigration policy and a raft of legislation has followed: In France during the eighties, under a left wing government there was a movement of compassion for immigrant labourers living alone for years, away from their families and a policy of Ã¢â¬Å"Regroupement FamilialÃ¢â¬ (family regrouping) was developed through Jacques Chirac and made law on 29/4/1976, under the principle that Ã¢â¬ it is a right for each person to have a normal family lifeÃ¢â¬ . By 1977 the policy had been revised and it was further modified in December 1984, 24 August 1993 and May 11 1998. This successive legislation not only dealt with the integration of immigrants into France by reaffirming the principles of Republicanism and laicite, but also demonstrated concerted efforts to ensure assimilation through state control rather than rely upon integration simply following on as a result of residence and education. From the la te seventies, changing political fortunes of both left and right wing governments had led to constant reinstatement and reversal of immigration policy and this impacted significantly on integration issues. Indeed France created somewhat of a record for legislative change and counter reversal in terms of immigration policy. In 1993 a right wing coalition gained power, and following the increasingly popular Front Nationale demands for the expulsion of immigrants from France, the response from Charles Pasqua, interior minister, was Ã¢â¬Å"immigration zero.Ã¢â¬ He later qualified this statement to mean zero illegal immigration, but the intentions behind such policy and legislation were quite apparent. The so-called Pasqua Laws denied foreign graduates the opportunity of taking up jobs offered by French employers and provided only limited residence rights to foreign employees, increased the waiting period for immigrant familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËreunificationÃ¢â¬â¢ from twelve months t o two years, and refused residence permits to unifying migrants who were in the country illegally. The legislation also increased the powers of the police to deport foreigners. The election of Jacques Chirac, a conservative right wing president in 1995 continued the course of limiting immigration channels. As the far right Front Nationale, led by Jean Marie Le Pen, focussing on an anti immigrant agenda began to rise in popularity, the conservative right responded by adopting some of the issues highlighted as important to the French electorate, notably furthering immigration control. In 1997 Lionel Jospin, a Socialist was voted in as Prime Minister which led to the National Assembly reconsidering their position on immigration policy. The new government commissioned a report on Ã¢â¬ËLÃ¢â¬â¢immigration et la nationaliteÃ¢â¬â¢ by Patrick Weil a prominent political scientist. The report highlighted that the Pasqua Laws deprived France the opportunity to benefit from the highly skil led international employee market through policies which made it difficult for foreign students and professionals to settle in France. The reportÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendations led the way for new immigration law passed in 1998. The new legislation afforded special immigration status to highly skilled foreign scholars and scientists and loosened entry conditions for certain categories of highly skilled foreign professionals, whilst simultaneously aiming to fight illegal immigration. Another significant change was that under the Pasqua Laws, children born to immigrant parents in France had to apply for French citizenship, whereas, under the new 1998 legislation, such children would be automatically granted French citizenship at the age of 18. Since 1945, the French Constitution (Articles 21-24) had dictated that in order to be naturalized an immigrant would need to demonstrate their Ã¢â¬Å"assimilation to the French communityÃ¢â¬ by learning French. Whilst Interior Minister, Nicolas Sarkozy passed laws in 2003 to broaden this, with the additional requirement to demonstrate an understanding and knowledge of the rights and duties of a French citizen. This requirement was further extended in legislation passed by Sarkozy at a time when he was still interior minister but looking towards standing in the presidential elections. This latest legislation in 2007 also required a contract for family unification to be entered into, with sanctions for non compliance, and the requirement to complete an eight week course which was Ã¢â¬Å"an evaluation of language ability and the values of the RepublicÃ¢â¬ before leaving their country of origin (Schain 2008: 57). Prior to 1962, the British Nationality Act of 1948 identified a Ã¢â¬ËCommonwealth citizenÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËBritish subjectÃ¢â¬â¢ as interchangeable. A British passport holder was identified as a subject of Ã¢â¬Ëthe United Kingdom and ColoniesÃ¢â¬â¢, which implied that a member of the Commonwealth, as a British subject, was entitled to live and work in the United Kingdom if they so chose. The Conservative government in power from 1954 to 1961 were strongly pro-commonwealth and saw no need to legislate to control immigration. However, among working class Britons opinion was shifting strongly in favour of limiting non white immigration. As public opinion became stronger the Government were put under increasing pressure to introduce immigration control measures. Despite the fact that Labour won the elections in late 1964, they had only a very small majority and were therefore vulnerable to populist pressure exerted by right wing militants. Sir Cyril Osborne, Conservative MP f or Louth proposed a new bill to Ã¢â¬Ëintroduce periodic and precise limits on immigrationÃ¢â¬â¢ and thus deny entry to Britain of all Commonwealth, immigrants other than those whose parents and grandparents were born in Britain. Although Sir OsborneÃ¢â¬â¢s views were generally accepted as somewhat extreme, the Conservative party backed his proposals .The Bill was defeated in March 1965 at its first reading, but soon after the Labour Government itself introduced a White Paper which proposed similar changes to the 1962 Act. The 1965 White Paper signalled the end of immigration for unskilled workers. It also introduced new limitations and regulations on foreign students, dependants of immigrants and visitors to Britain. Compulsory health checks were also introduced for new migrants and the Home Secretary was afforded new powers to remove and repatriate migrants to their countries of origin. However, as the economy began to recover and public opinion cooled, Britain saw the publi cation of a further Ã¢â¬ËRace Relations ActÃ¢â¬â¢ in 1968. This Act of Parliament shifted the focus from control to reducing racial tensions and tackling discrimination. It made it illegal to refuse public services, housing or work to someone on the basis of their colour, race, ethnicity or nationality and created the Community Relations Commission to promote multi racial harmony. This was the point at which political argument moved firmly away from immigration control to the management and improvement of race relations. The British current approach to integration was developed through this consensus between the two major political parties. This approach adopted a race-relations, or multicultural focus. Integration was seen in British policy more in terms of dealing with access to and eradicating discrimination of resource allocation. The Race Relations Act of 1965 focussed upon the provision of a public body to ensure fairness and advocacy in such issues. The Race Relations Act was further extended in 1968 and again in1976 to provide a clear way forward and bipartisan approach to immigration, race, and multiculturalism. The term Ã¢â¬Å"raceÃ¢â¬ in Britain was clearly applied to those of Asian and African commonwealth origin and from the 1950s political debates had focussed on Ã¢â¬Å"colouredÃ¢â¬ immigration. This way of differentiating between European and effectively black and Asian immigrant populations was identical to that of France. However, they differed in that the concept of race and e thnicity in Britain was incorporated into the formal policy framework of law. Where the countries differed much more starkly was in approach. Britain firmly established itself as supporting a multicultural rather than assimilation based model. In 1966 Roy Jenkins, then home secretary stated: Ã¢â¬Å"I do not think that we need in this country a melting potÃ¢â¬ ¦. I define integration therefore, not as a flattening process of assimilation but as equal opportunity, accompanied by cultural diversity, in an atmosphere of mutual toleranceÃ¢â¬ (Benton 1985: 71). By the 1980s, the education system had lent their considerable support to multiculturalism, which was by now firmly embedded in the legal system. Roy JenkinsÃ¢â¬â¢ view was reiterated in educational reports, Particularly the Swann Report in 1985 which identified the negative effect of racism upon the education of black children in the United Kingdom. In 1997 the Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain produced a repo rt which positively identified the United Kingdom to be a Ã¢â¬Å"community of communitiesÃ¢â¬ , thus reinforcing a multicultural approach very different from the assimilation model of France. It is interesting that despite these two very different models, by October 2008 a European Pact on Immigration and Asylum had been signed by 27 EU heads of Government to include those of both France and Britain and it is reported that Nicolas Sarcozy stressed that Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢est la premiere demonstration dÃ¢â¬â¢une volonte commune et dÃ¢â¬â¢une vision dÃ¢â¬â¢ensemble en matiere dÃ¢â¬â¢immigrationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Le Figaro, 2008) Chapter 4 Ã¢â¬â The Influence of the Media on Attitudes towards Immigration 2005 riots in France France wearing of headscarf etc Role of the media Ã¢â¬â use current newspaper tv info to compare media reporting and influence Chapter 5 Ã¢â¬â Exploring Current Attitudes towards Immigration In order to explore current attitudes towards immigration, I decided to carry out a questionnaire to explore differing attitudes between English and French students on key issues regarding immigration. On reviewing the available literature and data, it is clear that there has been a significant amount of exploration of these issues via major international surveys Ã¢â¬â for example the European Social Survey, Transatlantic Trends in Immigration, the Institute for Public Policy Research, TNS Sofres etc. The Outcomes of current Transatlantic Trends research released in February this year indicated that English attitudes towards immigration are more negative than our French counterparts. It identified that One in five UK respondents regarded immigration to be one of the most important issues facing the UK today. 68% of respondents in the UK are worried about illegal immigration and 36% concerned about legal immigration. 70% of UK respondents reported Ã¢â¬ËpoorÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëve ry poorÃ¢â¬â¢ management of immigration by the government as opposed to 58% of French. This research is significant as it suggests that although attitudes towards immigration are more negative in Britain, public opinion in France is rapidly changing and aligning itself with that of the UK. (see appendix ) The biannual European Social Survey appeared to provide the most consistent survey data since respondents in all the European countries concerned were asked the same standardised questions and their results compared year on year. Most of the other survey results I considered were not directly comparable as they were drawing from different surveys completed in separate countries and comparing on the basis of Ã¢â¬ËsimilarÃ¢â¬â¢ questioning or even different questioning on the general subject of immigration. On further investigation it became apparent that the European Social Survey consisted of core modules and rotating modules. Unfortunately, although the 2002 survey contained a module specifically concerned with immigration, this rotating module has not been included in any of the four surveys completed since then. This is relevant as research also seems to indicate that, although more negative in Britain, attitudes towards immigration in France and Britain are narrowing rapidly. I therefore decided to use the ESS immigration module to provide a series of questions for my questionnaire. I chose questions that were the most relevant to my own research and interests in the subject. By using these questions I was able to ensure that the format of the questions (in both French and English) had been properly formulated and tested to ensure accurate comparison. The other advantage of using questions from the 2002 ESS was that my results could be directly compared with the main conclusions of that survey. In this way my research, though it will only provide qualitative data due to the limited scope of it, will contribute in some small way towards a better understanding of the difference in attitudes between French and English young people and explore their perceptions in some detail. For my study, I prepared a questionnaire of 16 main questions and asked a random group of English and French students to complete them. The French students were those on exchange placements currently studying in England, and the English students were those who had undertaken a period of study in France. This decision was taken in order to get some degree of similarity between the groups. I followed ethical guidelines and ensured confidentiality. (This was particularly important if I was to be able to get honest attitudes and views from respondents Ã¢â¬â as the subject matter is clearly both personally and politically sensitive.) Clearly my research only provides limited information. It is not directly comparable with the European Social Survey as my respondents were drawn from a particular group (language students) rather than the general public. My research is also on a very small scale and the views and attitudes of such a small number of respondents cannot realistically be ext rapolated to form more general statements. However, my research provides a good degree of qualitative information as well as some limited qualitative data based results. I will therefore present my findings more as a narrative and draw some limited conclusions from them. My own research involved a total of xx respondents, xx British students and xx French students. Each were given a copy of the questionnaire (either appendix 1 or appendix 2 depending upon language spoken). It was explained to each volunteer that their questionnaires would be treated in strict confidence and that they were not individually identifiable in any way and that completed questionnaires would only be seen by the researcher. It was also made clear that any conclusions drawn would be of a general nature only. Each separate question also provided for a Ã¢â¬ËdonÃ¢â¬â¢t knowÃ¢â¬â¢ answer to allow recipients to effectively avoid any question they were not happy to answer but enable them to still complete the rest of the questionnaire. As can be seen from the table of results, there was little significant difference between French and British respondents to questions xxxxxx . Thus indicating generally similar attitudes between the countries. It is also interesting that the responses of the British students were not noticeably more negative than those of their French counterparts. This may indicate further narrowing of views internationally or it may simply indicate that educated students with an interest in language are likely to hold views that align more easily with similar others abroad than with those from different backgrounds in their own countries. Question xxxvery interesting because Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ etc Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Differences and similarities Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦The most significant result is Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. The results of my small piece of research suggest that Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦however as such a limited and specific piece of work, firm conclusions cannot be reliably drawn. Further research in this area would be useful to explore to what extent attitudes are changing and converging and this could then be compared with media and political influence as these may well be highly influential on public opinion. CONCLUSION KEY LITERATURE REVIEW BIBLIOGRAPHY http://news.bbc.co.uk/english/in-depth/uk/2002/short history of immigration.stm Article for BBC Ã¢â¬â The deep roots of French secularism by Henri Astier -1 September 2004. ESRC Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, Working Paper 45, University of Oxford, 2007. France 24 report on October 4 2007, Great Britain divided on the impact of immigration. Report for Expatica.com Ã¢â¬â Tests Gauge attitudes towards immigration 16/12/2009. Schain, M. A. (2008). The Politics of Immigration in France, Britain, and the United States: A Comparative Study. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Banton Michael, (1985) Promoting Racial Harmony: Cambridge University Press Europeansocialsurvey.org http://ess.nsd.uib.no/ess/round1/fieldwork.html A.G. Hargreaves, Immigration, `RaceÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ethnicity in Contemporary France (London: Routledge, 1995) www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/nov/16/france-racism-immigration-sarkozy.CMP=twt-gu http://www.lefigaro.fr/politique/2008/10/16/01002-20081016ARTFIG00451-immigration-le-grand-jour-europeen-d-hortefeux-.php How to cite Histories of france and britain, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s Ark is a vessel, which according to the Book of Genesis (chapters 6-9), was built by Noah at GodÃ¢â¬â¢s command to save himself, his family, and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s animals from a global torrent.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s ark myth specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bailey (10) observes that Ã¢â¬Å"the narrative of the ark is found in Abrahamic religions such as Judaism, Christianity and Islam.Ã¢â¬ In this essay the real account of events shall be explained and then the truth and logic in them will be analyzed. It is therefore an analysis of the events that are written in the bible and how true they could be in relation to the current world. God realized that mankind was very wicked and therefore decided to sweep people out of the planet. Nonetheless, there was one righteous man called Noah and his family of 8 persons. Noah warned people to stop their wicked ways but no one listened to him, but instead they mocked him. God therefore instructed Noah to build an ark in which he, his family and the animals would stay while he destroyed human kind with water. Ã¢â¬Å"Then the LORD said to Noah, Ã¢â¬ËCome into the ark, you and your entire household, for I have seen that you are righteous. Take with you seven pairs of all clean animals, the male and his mate; and a pair of the animals that are not cleanÃ¢â¬ (Emerton 6). At this time Noah was 600 years old; the ark was built it for almost 120 years, but despite the mockery Noah got from the people. Emerton (7) describes the ark as a Ã¢â¬Å"barge-like structure probably built of cypress or cedar, 450 feet long by 75 feet wide and 45 feet high.Ã¢â¬ The ark of this size would therefore put out of place approximately 20,000 tons because it would weigh 14,000 tons; it had, three decks, one door on the side and a window 18 inches high. The first deck was for the food, the second for accommodation and he thir d for waste. The ark was therefore big enough for the animals since they were the most and the small family of Noah. When it was done Noah parked food for him and the animals to last them till the floods were over. Ã¢â¬Å"He then led animals into the ark seven pairs of each clean species and one pair of the uncleanÃ¢â¬ (Emerton 69). As they entered they were harassed by the sinful mankind but God put his toughest creatures such as lions and tigers to protect them.Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After they had all entered into the ark, God opened the fountains of the deep waters and the windows of heaven and it rained for days and nights. The world was covered with water for 150 days, even the highest mountains were all under water therefore destroying every sinful; mankind that was in existence. Noah waited for the waters to dry up and the ark rested on the peak of Mount Ararat and as the waters resided Noah would send ravens every seven days out to check whether the waters had dried up. They stayed on the mountain peak for five months until he sent a dove that confirmed that the water had dried up by bringing him an olive twig meaning that vegetation was growing and when he sent it again it did not return meaning it had found some where to stay. They came out of the ark with the animals one by one and Noah decided to offer sacrifice to God for saving him and his family. God was pleased and he made a covenant with him using a rainbow in the sky to never to destroy mankind with floods again because man was born evil. Ã¢â¬Å"I will never again curse the ground because of man, for the imagination of manÃ¢â¬â¢s heart is evil from his youth; neither will I ever again destroy every living creature as I have doneÃ¢â¬ (Emerton 18). He ordered the animals to be fruitful and fill the world again and so were the three sons of Noah from whom the whole of m ankind was born. The above events seem to be true according the history of the planet because some of its geographical features could be as result of the massive flood. However some of these facts are disputable; some of these are the ages of these people that existed then. Noah is said to have been 600 years when he was ordered to build the ark, which he did so in 120 years. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s disputable how long man could live then considering that the current man can only live at most a sixth of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s age which is a very big variance. The change in manÃ¢â¬â¢s lifespan could be attributed to the changes in ecosystem caused by the flood but still that variance is unimaginable. The ark was built in 120 years that would mean that even after a century mankind did not get the message, a very disputable fact too and also apparently out of 7 billon people only 8 people were righteous (Bailey 205). Animals are also said to have been led to the ark, animals do not have the brain capacit y to cooperate and be led to an ark more so in pairs. Moreover, how could herbivores and carnivores live in the same ark and yet not maul on each other? The carnivores would have also eradicated Noah and his family in the process of putting them in the ark, leave alone living in the ark.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s ark myth specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Noah sent a dove to check whether the waters had dried up, how did it identify that was its mission and that it should come back. The food lasted them a year, but how was this food preserved for so long, and finally how could have Noah and his family built such a strong ark to survive such a massive flood without any sophisticated scientific and technological knowledge. Furthermore, the waters from the flood are said to be from the fountains of the deep seas: where are those fountains that released so much water? Where did the water evapo rate to because to submerge the entire earth surface a lot of water was really needed and it is not seen today? Scientists claim that the water is below the earth deep into the underground but they also say that for such amounts of water to be trapped so deep there must have been a lot of pressure applied. Scientists attest to the flood occurrence but they claim it was due to the break up of a planet between Mars and Jupiter hence causing the floods that subsequently led to too much pressure on earth hence the waters was forced underground. The mountains are also said to have formed at this point and so is the continents due to the immense pressure of the waters, hence before the floods there were no mountains where did the ark stop. Aviators, Christians and other interested people have explored Mount Ararat in turkey to find the ark remains but no evidence has been found yet. The ark story can not be considered a lie altogether because if there were floods then there must have been people who survived it, and for them to survive there must have been some one to protect them. The changes in ecosystem could be the reason of the changes in man as it is evident on what evolution can do. However, some things remain unbelievable but humankind has no other information to prove them wrong and such are the book of Genesis stories. Science could answer some questions but still leave out some that the bible answers but still the bible answers some while others it does not. Therefore, whether to believe the story or not will depend on the method of achieving rationality being used which is influenced by several factors depending on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment and the culture and beliefs that one is exposed to.Advertising Looking for essay on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Bailey, Lloyd. Noah, the Person and the Story. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1989. Print. Emerton, Jackson. An Examination of Some Attempts to Defend the Unity of the Flood Narrative in Genesis: Part II. Vetus Testamentum XXXVIII. (1988): 1-21. Print. This essay on The NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s ark myth was written and submitted by user Anderson Everett to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Technology Headaches essays Have you ever been frustrated with your computer? Misplaced you cell phone? Or could not program a VCR? Well thanks to technology we have all these modern day convinces. Unfortunately the downside, to the fast pace world of technology, are the high stress levels and even more dangerous the growing dependences. Like most people I have had the urge to smash my computer with a bat, or throw it out a window. At one time or another everyone has the urge to beat their computer, for me it is more often than most. Although the computer is a great tool that allows us to do so many different thing such as chatting online, email, shopping, and researching, the thing it does best is frustrate us. Being a computer systems information major, I have trouble shot the many problems that can occur with computers. I know the pain one feels when losing that long important essay on the computer, or having a computer freeze while chatting or playing games, or the having the computer crash, and the one program that just will not work. Computer problems can be very stressful to many people, including myself. As many people deal with technology today it is all too easy to become stressed out. With each advance in technology, which is supposed to make life easier, our daily lives get slightly more complicated. Unfortunately, it cannot be escaped. Technology is becoming apart of our ever day lives. As computers are incorporated into your everyday lives one must be careful of the health problems. High stress can lead to high blood pressure, or long hours at the computer screen can cause eye strain, improper posture which can cause back problems, and even repetitive typing may lead to carpel tunnel syndrome. When working with computers or any technology one should take be patient and try not to stress out. Every so often take a break from the computer, step away stretch and get a breath of fresh air outside. ...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
How to Sing Happy Birthday in Chinese The Happy Birthday Song has a strangely contested history. The tune was originally composed in the late 1800s by Patty and Mildred Hill, though the lyrics were not the same. In fact, the Hill sisters titled the song Good Morning To All. Somewhere along the way, the phrase happy birthday became associated with the melody. In 1935, the Summy Company registered a copyright for the Birthday Song. In 1988, Warner Music bought that copyright and has been making big bank ever since. Warner Music charged royalties for public performances of the Happy Birthday Song and appearances in film soundtracks. Only until 2016 did the popular song become public domain. In February 2016, a US federal judge closed a case ruling that Warner Music does not hold a valid copyright to the Happy Birthday Songs lyrics and melody. Now, the Birthday Song finally belongs to the public and is considered one of the most popular songs in the world. It has been translated into many languages, including Mandarin Chinese. Its an easy song to learn in Chinese since it is essentially just two phrases repeated over and over again.Ã Practice speaking the words to this song before singing them. This will ensure that you are learning the words with the proper tones. When singing in Mandarin Chinese, sometimes the tones are not clear given the melody of the song. Notes Ã Ã§ ¥ (zhÃ ¹) means wish or express good wishes. Ã§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ (zhÃ ¹ nÃ ) means wishing you. Ã Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¦ ¨â (in traditional form) / Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¤ ¹ (simplified form) (kui lÃ ¨) can be preceded byÃ other happy eventsÃ such as Christmas (Ã¨ â"Ã¨ ªâ¢Ã§ ¯â¬Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¦ ¨â / Ã¥Å" £Ã¨ ¯Å¾Ã¨Å âÃ¥ ¿ «Ã¤ ¹ / shÃ ¨ng dn jiÃ © kui lÃ ¨) or New Year (Ã¦â" °Ã¥ ¹ ´Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¦ ¨â / Ã¦â" °Ã¥ ¹ ´Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¤ ¹ / xÃ «n nin kui lÃ ¨). Pinyin shÃâng rÃ ¬ kui lÃ ¨zhÃ ¹ nÃ shÃâng rÃ ¬ kui lÃ ¨zhÃ ¹ nÃ shÃâng rÃ ¬ kui lÃ ¨zhÃ ¹ nÃ shÃâng rÃ ¬ kui lÃ ¨zhÃ ¹ nÃ yÃângyuÃÅ½n kui lÃ ¨ Traditional Chinese Characters Ã§âÅ¸Ã¦â" ¥Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¦ ¨âÃ§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ Ã§âÅ¸Ã¦â" ¥Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¦ ¨âÃ§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ Ã§âÅ¸Ã¦â" ¥Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¦ ¨âÃ§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ Ã§âÅ¸Ã¦â" ¥Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¦ ¨âÃ§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ Ã¦ ° ¸Ã© Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¦ ¨â Simplified Characters Ã§âÅ¸Ã¦â" ¥Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¤ ¹ Ã§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ Ã§âÅ¸Ã¦â" ¥Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¤ ¹ Ã§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ Ã§âÅ¸Ã¦â" ¥Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¤ ¹ Ã§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ Ã§âÅ¸Ã¦â" ¥Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¤ ¹ Ã§ ¥ Ã¤ ½ Ã¦ ° ¸Ã¨ ¿Å"Ã¥ ¿ «Ã¤ ¹ English Translation Happy BirthdayWish to you happy birthdayWish to you happy birthdayWish to you happy birthdayWish to you happiness forever Hear the Song The melody of the song is the same as the birthday song in English. You can hear the Chinese version sung to you by the crooning Mando pop-star Jay Chou.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Value Orientation Style analysis - Essay Example According to the two anthropologists, understanding the differences in value orientation is critical in corporate management in different locations. In this regard, it would be important to analyze the culture of Russians in the context of Pierre Frankel experience and within the five human concerns. The Russian society believes that human being is evil and as such emphasizes use of code of conduct, punishment and sanctions as behavior control approach. Considering the case study, since the fall of Soviet in 1992, the people of Russia attribute their failures to opening up to the west. In this respect, there has been significant suspicion coupled with bitterness for foreign companies hence difficulty in free interaction with foreign corporate leaders. The cold reception Frankel received from Lebedev and the idea of giving him an office away from Managing directorÃ¢â¬â¢s office manifests this extent of unease with foreigners. This means that it would be difficult for H-IT to make significant impact with its globally standardized management practices. In the context of activity orientation, Russian society is containing and controlling. It can be noted that despite efforts by Frankel to initiate changes with top leadership and employees in H-IT subsidiary in Russia, there was significant go-slow in response. This is a society where people value control and orderlies with life-society balance. Despite Frankel trying to convince the Russian managers on how to effect productive changes, the employees remained reluctant and pursued local approach hence the observed poor performance of the company. For instance, While Frankel attempts to hire a more competent personnel, Lebedev seeks his own with intention to contain any outside influence from the new employee. The Russian community offer significant opposition to contemporary business demand due to its emphasis on past time orientation. This society clings on the Soviet era culture and